Lessons from the Classics: MP Alternatives

We’ve all played a game or two (or twenty) with this system: each character has a finite amount of MP used for spells, more powerful ones cost more MP, and if your MP runs out you need items (or “rest”) to replenish it.

I find many implementations pretty tedious (buying/using MP restorative items constantly, or saving all magic for the boss), but preferences aside, its just plain boring when so many games do the same thing.

Now I happen to think there’s still a lot to learn from older games, so let’s look back at some alternatives to the typical MP system and imagine exciting future possibilities. (Let’s just define “magic” and “MP” broadly as “special moves” and the “special points required to use them.”)

You may already know much I love the Paladin’s Quest/Lennus games, where MP doesn’t exist. In these two games, spells cost HP. It’s an exciting twist that changes the dynamics of casting and healing, and I wrote about it in more detail here. Considering it’s the only game I know of to do this, I think there’s still a lot to explore here.

Rather than bothering with MP, some games just limit the number of times each individual spell can be cast. Final Fantasy 1 and Chrono Cross do this (this was one of the highlights of CC for me, personally).
battle ability list
Choosing which “element” to use in Chrono Cross- only one shot for each!

In a sense, this goes for any game where items can be used to cast a spell. I always want this to be fun and functional, but for some reason items usually cast weak or “just average” spells and aren’t worth keeping track of. (However, bombs in Dark Chronicle 2 are super useful *wink*).

On this note, I always liked the concept of the “Chemist” class (from Final Fantasy 3/6 and others), who can use items more effectively. That coupled with magic/attack items that actually deal damage would be fun!
FF’s Chemists can also “Mix” items and get special results.

The Draw system in FF 8 is a weird case where you can infinitely “Draw” the items needed to cast magic. The catch is that you infinitesimally weaken your character each time you use any Magic that is “Junctioned.” I enjoyed this, but nevertheless ending up getting frustrated as I spent hours obsessively trying to Draw Magic. In the end, I think the combination of “limited number of casts” and “infinitely available through cumbersome chore” was not such a good idea.

Fire Emblem KIND of does this… Every physical or magical attack wears down the weapon/spellbook used until it breaks. So, in practice, every attack is a “special” attack (ie limited in number), but at the same time characters generally use the same attacks all the time, so nothing is really “special.” The interesting thing is that “magic” is just another weapon, no different from swords or bows, just with its own pros and cons.
Battle animations in the SNES and GBA Fire Emblem games are wonderful.

I’m talking about all the Limit Breaks and Overdrives out there. They become available either when you are low on HP or have filled up a bar by taking enough damage (though Final Fantasy X lets you fill up the bar in various ways, which was neat).

Lufia 2 had an additional interesting twist on this system where the abilities are provided by equipment. That was a really fun additional consideration when equipping armor and weapons.
When the IP bar (below MP) fills up, you can choose one of the IP techniques of your equipped items.

The Dagger’s IP Technique!

I loved how in Final Fantasy 9, a certain combination of characters in the party makes some abilities available. I just thought it was so endearing that Steiner could use elemental Magic Swords when Vivi was there! (Unfortunately I never used Steiner…)
Steiner performs Fire Sword with Vivi’s help.

I think there is a lot more to explore with this “special situation magic”…

What if a character could only use certain spells when their HP was above 90%? Or only when an ally was low on HPーor only when the enemies have over 50% health?! Just imagine!!

When it comes to traditional mages, don’t you hate having to choose between a powerful spell that uses up precious MP, or totally worthless physical attacks?

Well, in Romancing Saga 3, mages generally have a relatively effective 1MP attack, but also a -1MP bonus to magic. So you get a free attack that is actually effective.

Now, the only game I know that did this with the “MP” is Romancing Saga: Minstrel Song (though they call it “BP”), where it starts at the same base level and increases throughout each battle. Breath of Fire 4 is similar, in that you start with a minimal base amount of AP that replenishes throughout the battle (but only if the character isn’t being used).

The nice thing about these systems is that you are saved (at least partially) from the tyranny of “Ethers” (cough, Final Fantasy, cough).

Romancing Saga 3 resets HP to the max after every battle, which is a huge relief and allows for consistently challenging enemies. This could be really interesting if also done with MP…

It’s standard fare in Action RPGs, obviously, but Final Fantasy 3 also implemented it with Sabin, and Legend of Dragoon used it in a pretty fun way, too.
You must hit buttons precisely to rack up damage in Legend of Dragoon- but if you succeed, the character yells out the name of the attack with hilarious voice acting!

You have to memorize Sabin’s combos (what is this, Street Fighter?), but then you can use them to your heart’s content.

For me the memorization of fast-paced buttons to mash kinda clashes with the RPG vibe. I mean when you want action, you want consistent action (not light action spread awkwardly through parts of battle), and when you want RPG, you usually want atmosphere, strategy, planning, and whatnot- not to be suddenly asked to input fast buttons.

Now this is a wild fantasy of mine but… what if not only did spells use HP, but HP was shared for the entire party? Different characters contribute different amounts, and their spells use different amounts. They could even KO at different points as it decreases…?!

Or, what if the stage where you fought supplied the MP- a limited amount shared by all characters? Some areas are rich in magic, others barely have a shred!? And what if this “Mana Pool” (still MP, haha) was also shared by ENEMIES?

What if performing special moves involved putting your characters in certain locations relative to enemies in a grid-based fighting game (forming an unbroken “Square of Doom” or “Healing Trapezoid,” for example)? Some kind of Geomancy/Feng Shui-based magic system…??

My fantasies are endless… And you probably have your own, too. I’d love to hear them in the comments section!

Posted in Action, Console, Game Design, Japanese, Lennus, NES, Playstation, RPG, Series, SNES, Western | Tagged , | 10 Comments

From Berlin, With Play〜

Sorry for the lack of posting lately. I moved to Berlin! Now I’m somewhat settled in and am working on the next post, though.

If you are in Europe, I’ll be playing games at Playpublik in Krakow October 3-5. Hope you’ll stop by and play with me!

Also, I completed a game recently- which is rare, ’cause usually I give up around the last dungeon out of not wanting it to end, getting tired of it, or wanting to finish up side quests (or switching computers and losing save files *looks longingly at Breath of Fire IV*)… But some games are so good I just have to finish them. And Romancing SaGa 2 is one. As soon as I finished I actually wanted to replay it with all the knowledge I gained. And there were so many things I missed… like all of the most powerful magic and skills! Whoops!

Coming up next is another experiment with new kinds of posts, looking at a few different games around a theme.

Also starting work on another article (like the “Worldbuilding and Characters” one) but super secret and under wraps for now… heh, heh, heh.

Posted in Console, Game Design, General, Japanese, RPG, Site-related, SNES, Translation | Leave a comment

Ogre Battle/Tactics Series, 1993-2001

There are five games in the “Ogre Battle Saga” series. (Four have been released in English, but there is a mysterious Japan-only fifth that I have never been able to get my hands on…) The main four that I will discuss are “Ogre Battle: March of the Black Queen” (SNES, 1993), “Tactics Ogre: Let Us Cling Together” (SNES, 1995), “Ogre Battle: Person of Lordly Caliber” (N64, 1999), and “Tactics Ogre: The Knight of Lodis” (GBA, 2001).

Each falls into one of two different styles: A) a real-time strategy simulation where groups of characters fight together as units (“Ogre Battle” games), or B) more traditional turn-based combat on a grid where characters act individually (“Tactics Ogre” games).

But they all have a few things in common:
1) Serious tone and themes about “war” and “morality,” with multiple story-lines and endings.
2) A large number of generic characters that evolve over the course of the game based on player’s actions.
3) Strategic combat on large maps where features like terrain, time of day, and weather have an impact.

Worldview: Strategic stewardship of an army in a vast, serious world.
Your actions and decisions feel imbued with moral weight that manifests itself in the your gradually growing and evolving army.

The Ogre games feature stories and characters that take themselves very seriously, tackling themes like loyalty and morality with plenty of heavy-handed dialogue. The stories usually focus on characters’ helplessness in the midst of forces beyond their control, and their struggles to do the “right thing” when there is no one right choice. Since most other games have a comic relief character or at least a few jokes here and there, the serious tone in the story and dialogue is somehow refreshing and endearing.

cybil lodis cinema
Dramatic cut-scene with Cybil in “Knights of Lodis”

The serious tone carries over to the realistically-rendered character portraits, which are plain, rarely smiling, and could even be called drab. Again, compared with the colorful and dynamic portraits in most other RPGs, this gives the game a distinct feel of its own.

No smiling allowed in Zetegenia!

Whether an “Ogre Battle” or “Tactics Ogre” game, the combat system involves large maps where terrain type, element, time of day, and even weather affect the battle.

Characters’ class affects how they move and which type of terrain they are most effective on, while time of day and weather affect which characters and actions are most effective. Items (as well as towns in the case of Ogre Battle) are hidden around every stage, encouraging exploration and making mobility an important factor.

fight it out BQ
When units get near each other they have to “fight it out”!

With all the factors involved, every stage is different in terms of how each character will fare. Generally you’ll need a variety: flying characters for quick movement, characters that can move quickly on mountain terrain to reach remote locations, and water-type characters to reach islands. (Though I do feel that the water classes rarely get much of a chance to shine in any of the games… sadness).

BQ octopi
I love octopi, but oceans and lakes aren’t always easy to come by…

Generally you can’t just throw out the same powerful characters in every situation, and sometimes you can really get caught in a pickle by environmental factors. In “March of the Black Queen,” a lot of this is offset by a limited supply of tarot cards that can massively change the course of battle in case of emergency.

good tarot BQ
In the unique tarot card system of March of the Black Queen, you receive a card every time you liberate a city and can use it for devastating effects in battle

What many fans undoubtedly enjoy most is managing the characters and units in their army. For the most part you manage generic characters that can be recruited throughout the game, and early on you will have a lot of the same starting classes (“soldier” for males, and “amazon” for female). But, due to the large number of classes they can change into, in the end you usually have only have one or two characters of the same class, so they still end up feeling one-of-a-kind and special.

New classes can be added to your army in a number of ways throughout the game, and a large part of the joy of the series is in trying to obtain a specific class through a side quest, waiting to see what a lowly soldier will become, or stumbling upon a new creature and trying to recruit it. The games even allow you to recruit enemies in the middle of battle by “persuading” them, with success dependent on the class, alignment (how good/lawful or evil/chaotic they are), and other factors of each character.

That feeling when you persuade the enemy…

The various classes also affect each other in a number of ways. For example, all the games feature a “beast tamer” class that boosts the power of gryphons, octopi, and other beast-type allies nearby, the same being true for dragon tamers and dragons. Similarly, characters’ element, alignment and class affects the damage dealt to and chance to persuade enemies.

Actually, the way you use characters in battle alters their alignment. Attacking evil or higher level units raises a character’s alignment, while relying on high level characters to kill enemies slowly turns them evil.

battle ghost BQ
Killing ghosts and other evil characters raises your alignment

This character system makes your army feel connected to and affected by the epic battle going on around you. Your actions and playing style determine the make-up of your army, and as it develops you’ll need to assemble characters into effective groups where they can best use their unique skills. This is the joy of stewardship that has earned such a following for the Ogre Battle Saga series.

Units N64
So many units, so little rare items!

Of course, individually equipping and keeping track of 20+ units can border on tedious micro-management, but the games are generally playable with minimal attention to classes and equipment. If you want to fine-tune your army there is plenty of depth and complexity, but taking things as they come generally works fine (except in “Let Us Cling Together”…). Also, most of the games’ systems are not only complex but also somewhat hidden in that you’ll need a FAQ to really see all that the game has to offer.

Though varying greatly between two gameplay systems and various consoles, the Ogre Battle Saga games focus on the joy of taking stewardship over a large army, which at the same time feels small in the vast and epic worlds and stories that the games create.

On a game-by-game breakdown, I’d say that:

“Ogre Battle: March of the Black Queen” is the roughest around the edges (it’s also the first in the series). A lot of things go unexplained, and the equipment system is bare bones. Still, it has some of my favorite in-battle sprites, I love the tarot card system, and, maybe it’s because it was the first Ogre game for me, or maybe it’s because the bare-bones minimalism is strangely appealing, but March of the Black Queen is probably my favorite Ogre game.

I think “Knights of Lodis” is the stronger Tactics game, but if you like grid-based strategy games you really can’t go wrong with either one. Be warned that “Let Us Cling Together” is incredibly punishing with its perma-death system and tough enemies.

Let Us Cling Together was remade for the PSP with beautiful character portraits

“Ogre Battle: Person of Lordly Caliber” is the weakest link for me. The battle system is super unbalanced and the graphics are not my cup of tea. Still, I played all the way through and mostly enjoyed it (the game doesn’t totally fly off the rails until the end).

n64 battle
Painful graphics (IMHO) in Person of Lordly Caliber

I wish I could speak for the elusive “Prince of Zenobia: Let Us Walk on Together So As Not to Lose Our Way” for Neo Geo Pocket- let me know if you have played it! There have also been rumors of another entry in the series for awhile now… Let’s hope they come true someday.

SIDE NOTE: Apparently the title “March of the Black Queen” and other names in the series are references to songs by the British band Queen. Who knew!

Posted in Game Boy Advance, Game Design, Japanese, N64, RPG, Series, SNES | Leave a comment

Romancing SaGa Character Design

Well, well, well, I’m delighted to see how many people liked the Romancing SaGa post. The Gamasutra edition got a lot of retweets and my pageviews suddenly skyrocketed. Seems like coverage of underrated gems and analysis of what makes them fun is a popular topic. So I’m thinking I’ll do a similar post for the Ogre Series (Ogre Battle/Tactics), or Harvest Moon (possibly most prolific series ever??).

Also, I forgot to share the wonderful concept art and character design for Romancing SaGa done by Tomomi Kobayashi.

Here’s my favorites from Romancing SaGa 2, where you play as multiple generations of emperors and choose the class of your emperor as each new generation begins. So any character class you come across could later become your “main character,” the emperor, or just be recruited as one of five party members at any time. Really original and fun (but has never been fully translated into English).






Some of her drawings are a little too airy and whimsical for me, but I enjoyed these. Check out her work from the other SaGas if you did, too!

Posted in Characters, Console, Game Design, General, Japanese, NES, RPG, Series, Site-related, SNES | Tagged , , | 1 Comment

Romancing SaGa Series, 1989-2012

Romancing SaGa is a unique series of Japanese RPGs spanning from 1989 all the way to 2012. It focuses in on the core elements of what makes RPGs fun: exploration and discovery as a world gradually unfolds before you.

(I haven’t completed every SaGa game and am focusing on the ones I know best: Romancing SaGA 1-3 (SNES), Minstrel Song (PS2), and Unlimited Saga (PS2))

These classic “SaGa” elements appear in most of the games:

① Characters learn special moves randomly* in the middle of battle.
② There are no experience points (characters’ abilities improve randomly* after each battle).
③ HP is fully replenished after every battle, but characters have Life Points (LP) that determine how many times they can get KO’d before they are permanently dead.
④ Enemies change to match your level throughout the game.
⑤ Large number of recruitable characters (including a choice of main characters), and a loose story with minimal dialogue.
⑥ Order of events and quests mostly left up to player.

*Not literally random, but a lot of chance is involved.

In short, every battle is new and surprising since enemies match your level and there’s always a chance characters might grow stronger somehow. The game is open-ended enough to feel like you are exploring, but provides enough structure and juicy tidbits to stimulate your imagination and bring the world to life.

A few key elements make the battle system delightful, setting it apart from the basic JRPG turn-based model.

One is the lightbulbs. Sometimes, especially when facing a difficult enemy, a lightbulb flashes over a characters head and, instead of doing what you instructed them to do, the character learns a new move and performs it on the spot. In early games, characters yell the name of the move in a speech bubble, which, coupled with the rough translations of the 90s, was really endearing. I fell for Romancing SaGa 3 the moment my character suddenly yelled “Big Logs Chop!” and wailed on the enemy with an axe.

Julius learned “Sweep Down,” a long sword technique! (RS3)

It’s in Japanese, but he’s casting “Light Ball” (RS2)

The lightbulb flash gives you a burst of adrenaline each time (or dopamine? I don’t know my psychological chemicals. Probably both.) and keeps even random battles fresh and exciting, since, although it happens most often in boss fights or against tough enemies, it can happen at any time. This eases the issue of grinding that plagues many RPGs.

Additionally, when the battle is over, characters may gain a level in their weapon or magic, or gain HP, TP or MP (the games use separate Points for magical and non-magical attacks, which means that all characters have an array of special moves and Points to manage whether they are a fighter or mage).

When a character improves their abilities at the end of battle, he or she also does a little jig (spinning and kicking in the SNES versions, or a character specific victory move in Minstrel Song). This spinning kick of the SNES games was a really nice touch. It’s kind of a random (spin, kick, and freeze in mid-air), but really makes you feel awesome when they yell “HP UP!” Also, each character has their own “kick” sprite (which is actually true for every sprite- no two characters punch or kick alike!). Since every character can technically equip any weapon or magic and perform any skill, their unique set of sprites gives otherwise interchangeable battle skills some personal flair.

The unique take on LP, HP, BP/TP, and MP (I know, its a lot of Ps!) also serves to increase the strategy of battles and the entire dungeon.

Battles can be quite tough, so you generally need some characters need to use special abilities to survive. Simply mashing “Attack, Attack, Attack” won’t work. At the same time, the fact that HP is fully restored in between battles let’s you ignore healing (a pet peeve as you may have guessed from previous posts), and you can begin each battle and its strategy from the same state.

Fairy has learned two bow techniques (the bow itself is called “Enhanced”) (RS3)

All of Barbara’s sword abilities (Minstrel Song)

Romancing SaGa games are also the only games I have ever played were KOs don’t require special “Life” magic. The usual healing spell brings characters back, which makes being KO’d strangely inconsequential. As long as a character has LP left it doesn’t matter- they’ll be alive again after the battle, HP and status fully recovered. (Though they do lose LP upon each hit while KO’d, which makes you feel really bad…)

Balancing the use of MP and TP with your remaining LP thus becomes the main focus. Nothing like making it to the boss with just a few LP left and hoping you can spark (ie lightbulb flash) some big new techs to survive! In worst case scenario, enemies can be avoided since they are visible onscreen and only have to be fought if you come in contact with them.

Beautiful character and monster design of Unlimited Saga… Those tree guys are hard on the LP, though

I love the “SaGa” approach here, which falls somewhere between linear and open-ended. The way it works is that, you can go to any location that you have heard about through the story or dialogue. For example, maybe someone in that first town mentions a neighboring city, while another talks about a mine that has been infested with monsters. These two locations can now be selected on the world-map, while the rest is completely blank.

Depending on what order you do quests and where you decide to go, your path through the world will be quite different. This works because enemies in each dungeon match your level- their sprite tells you the enemy type (demon, blob, undead, etc.), but your level determines whether you face a measly lone zombie, a gang of zombies, or a terrifying lich king.

Each location and quest offers tidbits of story that, pieced together, give you a sense of a larger story and world. Since available quests, recruitable characters, and other features vary by main character, playing through as different characters gives you a different experience of the world.

Dialogue appears in balloons over characters heads, which are quite small in the SNES editions and contain little more than a short sentence. You could call it super minimalist. For me, though, these mysterious tidbits drew me into the world and got my good old Belief Engine going.

Romancing Saga 3 35
Good old translations (RS3)

Love the giants (Minstrel Song)

SaGa has been praised as open-ended, but it is in fact quite structured. It is a far cry from games like the Elder Scrolls series, where you can literally go anywhere at anytime from the get-go. I always found that pretty lethal to story and fun, since I could just walk away from any person or quest and nothing seemed to matter, while at the same time if I went to the wrong place I would be instantly killed by overpowered enemies.

The SaGa series provides something more like a guided journey that can be completed out of order, continually offering both challenge and discovery.

That is what excites me about the series. Considering that exploring a new world is a key part of what makes RPGs attractive, the SaGa offers some interesting models and approaches to be inspired by.

Side note: “Romancing SaGa: Minstrel Song” (PS2) has one of the best intro videos, with music by Masayoshi Yamazaki.
AND “Harid’s Theme” from RS3 is one of the most relaxing and wonderful video game tunes I know.

Posted in Game Design, Japanese, RPG, Series, SNES | Leave a comment

Trying out New Types of Posts

I have a few ideas for new approaches I want to try on the blog besides the world-breakdown model I’ve been using. It should free me up to highlight some specific aspects of games and their worlds.

One is to focus on how to improve a single mechanic that appears in one or more games. Kinda like open-brainstorming about fun new twists on old mechanics.

Another is to do an overview of a whole series of games at once to see what common threads there are between their worlds and approaches to worldbuilding- what worked well and what didn’t (Romancing Saga for example).

Romancing Saga 3 on SNES

Romancing Saga on PS2

I’m still planning to do the old format sometimes, just wanna mix things up for variety. As always let me know what you think so I can keep things fresh and interesting!

On a side note, I haven’t had time to play much lately besides Nethergate (and that was awhile ago), but I did play some “Super Mario 3D World Wii U.” Both it and “New Super Mario Brothers Wii” are incredibly fresh and amusing throughout. They quickly turn into a slapstick series of trial and error and laughs when played with a friend (which is the only way I played), and I was pretty blown away by both from beginning to end.

Posted in Game Design, General, Japanese, Platformer, Site-related, Wii | Leave a comment

Chrysanthemum. Mac, 1993.

This is a quick post to highlight a little known Mac game from 1993 by Ryan Koopmans called “Chrysanthemum.” It can still be played online thanks to Online Alchemy, here.

Worldview: Meticulous, meditative spatial management
Theme: Flower-arranging

Most puzzle games that involve arrangement (Tetris, Bejeweled, Candy Crush etc.) have simple but hypnotic visuals and can put you in a pleasureable trance-like state with their straightforward and addictive gameplay. That’s why flower-arranging makes an especially nice theme for such a game.

While Bejeweled and Candy Crush have their own charm, I never thought that the destruction of candy or jewels made much sense or benefited their worlds. Bejeweled feels like a trippy sci-fi journey with a deep-voiced man through a world of jewels, while Candy Crush creates a slightly disturbing candy-sweet world, but in both cases the core theme of exploding candy/gems never quite clicked.

Flower-arranging, on the other hand, is visually pleasing and works with the “arrange similar objects” theme. The “art of flower arranging” (ikebana/kadou) also theoretically involves a meditative mental state, and these type of puzzle games also often lead to a trance-like state where you aren’t thinking consciously but rather responding to events in a relaxed but alert mindset.

chrys good action
Flowers appear randomly from all four sides of the screen. You can move them side to side until they collide with something and stop.

The bugs pictured here start to appear if a flower hits the opposite wall, or if you run out of time! (This screenshot is from the original version)

Once you have memorized the arrangements for each flower, you begin to see each level’s design in terms of potential flower layouts. In other words, like real flower-arranging, the game gets you into a visual design mode where you are focused on arrangement of the elements you are given to work with.

The titular chrysanthemums are the game’s “special item” that converts all flowers of one type into completed flower arrangements. Chrysanthemums become a rare and special treat that can save failed arrangements in even the most hopeless of situations.

chrys many actions
A chrysanthemum appears from the left! Lucky!

Once you get into later levels, however, the speed becomes unbearably fast- it increases relentlessly each level rather than ebbing and flowing like Tetris. Additionally, some levels can feel unfair if you get a bad mix of flowers at the beginning (see “Strait Jacket”!).

chrys rank

Side Note: Ryan Koopmans apparently released another game called “Fungus” in 1994. It is hailed as a classic, but I can find virtually no information about it online, let alone a place to download or play it… Any leads?

Posted in Action, American, Game Design, PC/Mac, Puzzle, Western | Leave a comment